Thursday, 8 December 2016

Education Edge PMI PMBOK Time Knowledge Area - Chapter 6


PROJECT TIME MANAGEMENT

 

Project Time Management includes the processes required to manage the timely completion of the project.

 

We discussed about preparing and managing schedule for the project. We learned about Precedence Diagramming Method and understood the concept of Lead, Lags and Resource Leveling. We were able construct a network diagram and calculated critical path and understood the essence of float.

 

The knowledge area of Project Time Management consists of the following seven processes:

 

Process Name
Project Management Process Group
Key Deliverables
Plan Schedule Management
Planning
Schedule Management Plan
Define Activities
Planning
Activity List, Milestone list
Sequence Activities
Planning
Project Schedule network diagrams
Estimate Activity Resources
Planning
Activity resource requirements, Resource breakdown structure
Estimate Activity Durations
Planning
Activity duration estimates
Develop Schedule
Planning
Schedule Baseline, Project Schedule
Control Schedule
Monitoring and Controlling
Work Performance Information, Change Requests

 

  • A schedule model is a representation of the plan for executing the project’s activities including durations, dependencies, and other planning information, used to produce project schedules along with other scheduling artifacts.

 

  • On some projects, especially those of smaller scope, defining activities, sequencing activities, estimating activity resources, estimating activity durations, and developing the schedule model are so tightly linked that they are viewed as a single process that can be performed by a person over a relatively short period of time.

 

  • The Project Time Management processes and their associated tools and techniques are documented in the schedule management plan.

 

  • The schedule management plan is a subsidiary plan of, and integrated with, the project management plan through the Develop Project Management Plan process.

 

 

  • As the project activities are being performed, the majority of effort in the Project Time Management Knowledge Area will occur in the Control Schedule process.

 

  • The schedule management plan defines how schedule contingencies will be reported and assessed.

 

  • The schedule management plan may be updated to reflect a change in the way the schedule is managed.

 


The Inputs, Tools and Techniques and Output of Plan Schedule Management process are given below.

 

Project Management Plan
Expert Judgment
Schedule Management Plan
Project Charter
Analytical Techniques
 
Enterprise Environmental Factors
Meetings
 
Organizational Process Assets
 
 

 

 

  • Define Activities is the process of identifying and documenting the specific actions to be performed to produce the project deliverables.

 

  • Work packages are typically decomposed into smaller components called activities that represent the work effort required to complete the work package.

 

  • Decomposition is a technique used for dividing and subdividing the project scope and project deliverables into smaller, more manageable parts.

 

  • The Define Activities process defines the final outputs as activities rather than deliverables, as done in the Create WBS process.

 

  • Rolling wave planning is an iterative planning technique in which the work to be accomplished in the near term is planned in detail, while the work in the future is planned at a higher level.

 


The Inputs, Tools and Techniques and Output of Define Activities process are given below.

 

Schedule Management Plan
Decomposition
Activity List
Scope Baseline
Rolling Wave Planning
Activity Attributes
Enterprise Environmental Factors
Expert Judgment
Milestone List
Organizational Process Assets
 
 

 

 

  • Sequence Activities is the process of identifying and documenting relationships among the project activities.

 

  • Every activity and milestone except the first and last should be connected to at least one predecessor with a finish-to-start or start-to-start logical relationship and at least one successor with a finish-to-start or finish-to-finish logical relationship.

 

  • Bar charts (or Gantt charts) are used to display tasks and their dates in a graphical fashion. They are used to display information of the type task 1 is scheduled from date A to date B. Typically the date range is displayed in the X-axis and the tasks on the Y-axis. Bar charts do not show task dependencies. They are generally used to track progress and show to the team.

 

  • Milestone charts are similar to bar charts but display only major events. They display major milestones (for example bridge design completed). They are used to report status to Management.

 

  • Network diagrams are used to display activities and their dependencies. Network diagrams can be used to perform critical path analysis. Network diagrams can also be used to perform crashing and fast tracking of the project. There are two type of network diagrams:
    • Activities on Node (or Precedence)
    • Activities on Arrow (or AOA)

 

  • Precedence is most commonly used. AON and AOA cannot have loops or conditional relationships.

 

  • Precedence (or Activity on Node) diagrams can be used to display four type of relationship between activities. These are:
    • Finish-To-Start
    • Start-To-Start
    • Start-To-Finish
    • Finish-To-Finish

 

  • Finish-to-start relationship means the dependent activity cannot start until the first activity is finished. This is the most common way to represent relationships between activities.

 

  • Activities on Array (AOA) network diagrams have the following characteristics.

 

  • AOA only uses Finish-To-Start relationship between tasks.

 

  • PERT and CPM can only be used with AOA.

 

  • Dummy events are shown with dotted lines. They do not take any time. They show dependencies between tasks.

 

  • Longest path through the network diagram is called the critical path. The activities on the critical paths are called critical activities.

 

  • Lags are inserted waiting times in between tasks. For example Task B cannot start until three days after task A completes.

 

  • Slack or Float is the amount of time a task can be delayed without delaying the project. Tasks on the critical path have zero float.

 

  • Critical Path Method (CPM) has the following characteristics.
    • It uses one time estimate per activity
    • It can be drawn only using AOA diagrams
    • It can have dummy events

 

  • Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) has the following characteristics.
    • It uses three estimates per activity - optimistic, pessimistic and most likely
    • It can be drawn only using AOA diagrams
    • It can have dummy events

 

  • PERT utilizes more information than CPM as it considers the "Pessimistic" and "Optimistic" values in addition to the "Most Likely" value in its calculations. The following are formulae used by PERT:

Mean = (P + 4M + O)/6

Standard Deviation = (P-O)/6

Variance = ((P-O)/6)2

Here P is the pessimistic estimate, O is the optimistic estimate and M is the most likely estimate.

 

  • GERT is another type of network diagram. It can support looping.

 

  • If a project has more than one critical path then the risk to the project increases.

 

  • Resource leveling refers to keeping the resources same across the duration of the project.

 


The Inputs, Tools and Techniques and Output of Sequence Activities process are given below.

 

Schedule Management Plan
Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM)
Project Schedule Network Diagrams
Activity List
Dependency Determination
Project Documents updates
Activity Attributes
Leads and Lags
 
Milestone List
 
 
Project Scope Statement
 
 
Enterprise Environmental Factors
 
 
Organizational Process Assets
 
 

 

The Inputs, Tools and Techniques and Output of Estimate Activity Resources process are given below.

 

Schedule Management Plan
Expert Judgment
Activity Resource Requirements
Activity List
Alternatives Analysis
Resource Breakdown Structure
Activity Attributes
Published Estimating Data
Project Documents updates
Resource Calendars
Bottom-Up Estimating
 
Risk Register
Project Management Software
 
Activity Cost Estimates
 
 
Enterprise Environmental Factors
 
 
Organizational Process Assets
 
 

 

The Inputs, Tools and Techniques and Output of Estimate Activity Duration process are given below.

 

Schedule Management Plan
Expert Judgment
Activity Duration Estimates
Activity List
Analogous Estimating
Project Documents updates
Activity Attributes
Parametric Estimating
 
Activity Resource Requirements
Three-Point Estimating
 
Resource Calendars
Group Decision Making Techniques
 
Project Scope Statement
Reserve Analysis
 
Risk Register
 
 
Resource Breakdown Structure
 
 
Enterprise Environmental Factors
 
 
Organizational Process Assets
 
 

 

The Inputs, Tools and Techniques and Output of Develop Schedule process are given below.

 

Schedule Management Plan
Schedule Network Analysis
Schedule Baseline
Activity List
Critical Path Method
Project Schedule
Activity Attributes
Critical Chain Method
Schedule Data
Project Schedule Network Diagram
Resource Optimization Techniques
Project Calendars
Activity Resource Requirements
Modeling Techniques
Project Management Plan Updates
Resource Calendars
Leads and Lags
Project Documents updates
Activity Duration Estimates
Schedule Compression
 
Project Scope Statement
Scheduling Tool
 
Risk Register
 
 
Project Staff Assignments
 
 
Resource Breakdown Structure
 
 
Enterprise Environmental Factors
 
 
Organizational Process Assets
 
 

 

The Inputs, Tools and Techniques and Output of Control Schedule process are given below.

 

Project Management Plan
Performance Reviews
Work Performance Information
Project Schedule
Project Management Software
Schedule Forecasts
Work Performance Data
Resource Optimization Techniques
Change Requests
Project Calendars
Modeling Techniques
Project Management Plan Updates
Schedule Data
Leads and Lags
Project Documents updates
Organizational Process Assets
Schedule Compression
Organizational Process Assets updates

 

 

 

 

PROJECT TIME MANAGEMENT

 

Project Time Management includes the processes required to manage the timely completion of the project.

 

We discussed about preparing and managing schedule for the project. We learned about Precedence Diagramming Method and understood the concept of Lead, Lags and Resource Leveling. We were able construct a network diagram and calculated critical path and understood the essence of float.

 

The knowledge area of Project Time Management consists of the following seven processes:

 

Process Name
Project Management Process Group
Key Deliverables
Plan Schedule Management
Planning
Schedule Management Plan
Define Activities
Planning
Activity List, Milestone list
Sequence Activities
Planning
Project Schedule network diagrams
Estimate Activity Resources
Planning
Activity resource requirements, Resource breakdown structure
Estimate Activity Durations
Planning
Activity duration estimates
Develop Schedule
Planning
Schedule Baseline, Project Schedule
Control Schedule
Monitoring and Controlling
Work Performance Information, Change Requests

 

  • A schedule model is a representation of the plan for executing the project’s activities including durations, dependencies, and other planning information, used to produce project schedules along with other scheduling artifacts.

 

  • On some projects, especially those of smaller scope, defining activities, sequencing activities, estimating activity resources, estimating activity durations, and developing the schedule model are so tightly linked that they are viewed as a single process that can be performed by a person over a relatively short period of time.

 

  • The Project Time Management processes and their associated tools and techniques are documented in the schedule management plan.

 

  • The schedule management plan is a subsidiary plan of, and integrated with, the project management plan through the Develop Project Management Plan process.

 

 

  • As the project activities are being performed, the majority of effort in the Project Time Management Knowledge Area will occur in the Control Schedule process.

 

  • The schedule management plan defines how schedule contingencies will be reported and assessed.

 

  • The schedule management plan may be updated to reflect a change in the way the schedule is managed.

 


The Inputs, Tools and Techniques and Output of Plan Schedule Management process are given below.

 

Project Management Plan
Expert Judgment
Schedule Management Plan
Project Charter
Analytical Techniques
 
Enterprise Environmental Factors
Meetings
 
Organizational Process Assets
 
 

 

 

  • Define Activities is the process of identifying and documenting the specific actions to be performed to produce the project deliverables.

 

  • Work packages are typically decomposed into smaller components called activities that represent the work effort required to complete the work package.

 

  • Decomposition is a technique used for dividing and subdividing the project scope and project deliverables into smaller, more manageable parts.

 

  • The Define Activities process defines the final outputs as activities rather than deliverables, as done in the Create WBS process.

 

  • Rolling wave planning is an iterative planning technique in which the work to be accomplished in the near term is planned in detail, while the work in the future is planned at a higher level.

 


The Inputs, Tools and Techniques and Output of Define Activities process are given below.

 

Schedule Management Plan
Decomposition
Activity List
Scope Baseline
Rolling Wave Planning
Activity Attributes
Enterprise Environmental Factors
Expert Judgment
Milestone List
Organizational Process Assets
 
 

 

 

  • Sequence Activities is the process of identifying and documenting relationships among the project activities.

 

  • Every activity and milestone except the first and last should be connected to at least one predecessor with a finish-to-start or start-to-start logical relationship and at least one successor with a finish-to-start or finish-to-finish logical relationship.

 

  • Bar charts (or Gantt charts) are used to display tasks and their dates in a graphical fashion. They are used to display information of the type task 1 is scheduled from date A to date B. Typically the date range is displayed in the X-axis and the tasks on the Y-axis. Bar charts do not show task dependencies. They are generally used to track progress and show to the team.

 

  • Milestone charts are similar to bar charts but display only major events. They display major milestones (for example bridge design completed). They are used to report status to Management.

 

  • Network diagrams are used to display activities and their dependencies. Network diagrams can be used to perform critical path analysis. Network diagrams can also be used to perform crashing and fast tracking of the project. There are two type of network diagrams:
    • Activities on Node (or Precedence)
    • Activities on Arrow (or AOA)

 

  • Precedence is most commonly used. AON and AOA cannot have loops or conditional relationships.

 

  • Precedence (or Activity on Node) diagrams can be used to display four type of relationship between activities. These are:
    • Finish-To-Start
    • Start-To-Start
    • Start-To-Finish
    • Finish-To-Finish

 

  • Finish-to-start relationship means the dependent activity cannot start until the first activity is finished. This is the most common way to represent relationships between activities.

 

  • Activities on Array (AOA) network diagrams have the following characteristics.

 

  • AOA only uses Finish-To-Start relationship between tasks.

 

  • PERT and CPM can only be used with AOA.

 

  • Dummy events are shown with dotted lines. They do not take any time. They show dependencies between tasks.

 

  • Longest path through the network diagram is called the critical path. The activities on the critical paths are called critical activities.

 

  • Lags are inserted waiting times in between tasks. For example Task B cannot start until three days after task A completes.

 

  • Slack or Float is the amount of time a task can be delayed without delaying the project. Tasks on the critical path have zero float.

 

  • Critical Path Method (CPM) has the following characteristics.
    • It uses one time estimate per activity
    • It can be drawn only using AOA diagrams
    • It can have dummy events

 

  • Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) has the following characteristics.
    • It uses three estimates per activity - optimistic, pessimistic and most likely
    • It can be drawn only using AOA diagrams
    • It can have dummy events

 

  • PERT utilizes more information than CPM as it considers the "Pessimistic" and "Optimistic" values in addition to the "Most Likely" value in its calculations. The following are formulae used by PERT:

Mean = (P + 4M + O)/6

Standard Deviation = (P-O)/6

Variance = ((P-O)/6)2

Here P is the pessimistic estimate, O is the optimistic estimate and M is the most likely estimate.

 

  • GERT is another type of network diagram. It can support looping.

 

  • If a project has more than one critical path then the risk to the project increases.

 

  • Resource leveling refers to keeping the resources same across the duration of the project.

 


The Inputs, Tools and Techniques and Output of Sequence Activities process are given below.

 

Schedule Management Plan
Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM)
Project Schedule Network Diagrams
Activity List
Dependency Determination
Project Documents updates
Activity Attributes
Leads and Lags
 
Milestone List
 
 
Project Scope Statement
 
 
Enterprise Environmental Factors
 
 
Organizational Process Assets
 
 

 

The Inputs, Tools and Techniques and Output of Estimate Activity Resources process are given below.

 

Schedule Management Plan
Expert Judgment
Activity Resource Requirements
Activity List
Alternatives Analysis
Resource Breakdown Structure
Activity Attributes
Published Estimating Data
Project Documents updates
Resource Calendars
Bottom-Up Estimating
 
Risk Register
Project Management Software
 
Activity Cost Estimates
 
 
Enterprise Environmental Factors
 
 
Organizational Process Assets
 
 

 

The Inputs, Tools and Techniques and Output of Estimate Activity Duration process are given below.

 

Schedule Management Plan
Expert Judgment
Activity Duration Estimates
Activity List
Analogous Estimating
Project Documents updates
Activity Attributes
Parametric Estimating
 
Activity Resource Requirements
Three-Point Estimating
 
Resource Calendars
Group Decision Making Techniques
 
Project Scope Statement
Reserve Analysis
 
Risk Register
 
 
Resource Breakdown Structure
 
 
Enterprise Environmental Factors
 
 
Organizational Process Assets
 
 

 

The Inputs, Tools and Techniques and Output of Develop Schedule process are given below.

 

Schedule Management Plan
Schedule Network Analysis
Schedule Baseline
Activity List
Critical Path Method
Project Schedule
Activity Attributes
Critical Chain Method
Schedule Data
Project Schedule Network Diagram
Resource Optimization Techniques
Project Calendars
Activity Resource Requirements
Modeling Techniques
Project Management Plan Updates
Resource Calendars
Leads and Lags
Project Documents updates
Activity Duration Estimates
Schedule Compression
 
Project Scope Statement
Scheduling Tool
 
Risk Register
 
 
Project Staff Assignments
 
 
Resource Breakdown Structure
 
 
Enterprise Environmental Factors
 
 
Organizational Process Assets
 
 

 

The Inputs, Tools and Techniques and Output of Control Schedule process are given below.

 

Project Management Plan
Performance Reviews
Work Performance Information
Project Schedule
Project Management Software
Schedule Forecasts
Work Performance Data
Resource Optimization Techniques
Change Requests
Project Calendars
Modeling Techniques
Project Management Plan Updates
Schedule Data
Leads and Lags
Project Documents updates
Organizational Process Assets
Schedule Compression
Organizational Process Assets updates